Vitreous and Retina

STARGARDT’S DISEASE (FUNDUS FLAVIMACULATUS)

Signs and Symptoms Stargardt’s disease is the most common autosomal recessive macular dystrophy, and it is on the continuum of macular degeneration.1-11 It was first described in 1909 by Carl Stargardt as a flecked retina disease in which patients presented with a chief complaint of decreased visual acuity in the first or second decade of…

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SICKLE CELL RETINOPATHY

Signs and Symptoms The ocular signs of sickle cell anemia are variable and may include: comma-shaped vessels in the bulbar conjunctiva; iris atrophy; iris neovascularization; dull-gray fundus appearance; retinal venous tortuosity; nonproliferative retinal hemorrhages (which may be subretinal, intraretinal or preretinal) and salmon patch hemorrhages (orange-pink-colored intraretinal hemorrhages); black sunbursts (RPE hypertrophy secondary to deep…

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RETINAL ARTERIAL MACROANEURYSM

Signs and Symptoms Retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAM) are acquired saccular or fusiform dilatations of the large arterioles of the retina.1-7 They are usually observed within the first three orders of bifurcation and can occur at arteriovenous crossings as well.4,7 Patients who develop RAM are typically between the ages of 50 and 80.1-7 They rarely occur…

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RETINAL EMBOLI

Signs and Symptoms The word embolus comes from the Greek word emballein, meaning “wedge-shaped stopper.” Today, the term is used to describe an abnormal particle within the circulatory system.1-10 Patients observed to have retinal emboli are typically elderly and often have a concurrent history of hypertension, diabetes, carotid artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, blood dyscrasia,…

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CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA

Signs and Symptoms Cystoid macular edema (CME), not a true diagnosis but a finding arising from numerous causes, is named for its intraretinal polycystic histopathologic appearance.1-6 The term is overly used by many to indicate Irvine-Gass syndrome, which is characterized by intraretinal swelling with a petaloid (like the petals of a flower) fluorescein angiographic appearance…

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EXUDATIVE (WET) MACULAR DEGENERATION

Signs and Symptoms Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, progressive degenerative disease involving multiple genetic, lifestyle, systemic and environmental factors.1-15 It is the leading cause of acquired blindness in elderly individuals living in western countries.1-5 As the disease progresses through the non-exudative (dry) form, metabolic conditions arise that trigger processes which result in the…

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NON-EXUDATIVE (DRY) MACULAR DEGENERATION

Signs and Symptoms Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of acquired legal blindness in the United States for persons over the age of 65.1-11 By 2020, AMD is expected to affect 2.95 million individuals in the US alone.5 AMD is present in approximately 10% to 18% of the population over the age of…

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LATTICE DEGENERATION

Signs and Symptoms Lattice degeneration of the retina is named for its resemblance to a fine, white, linear criss-cross lattice pattern seen in the peripheral neurosensory retina.1-15 The condition is common to 7% to 10% of adult eyes, with affected patients usually diagnosed over the age of 20.1-5,12-15 The condition is predominantly seen in the…

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COMMOTIO RETINAE

Signs and Symptoms Commotio retinae, formerly known as Berlin’s edema, presents as an area of retinal pallor following direct blunt ocular trauma. Symptoms are associated with the location and extent of the retinal bruising along with the collateral consequences of the blunt trauma.1-18 Any amount of retinal disruption located centrally can cause patients to observe…

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CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA

Signs and Symptoms Cavernous hemangioma of the retina (CHR) and the optic disc are typically considered to be uncommon lesions. Their precise frequency in the general population is unknown, but both genders and all ethnic groups are susceptible.1 They represent asymptomatic, congenital malformations of the retinal blood vasculature that are typically non-progressive and most often…

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