Eyelids and Adnexa

BENIGN ESSENTIAL BLEPHAROSPASM

Signs and Symptoms Blepharospasm represents an eye-specific form of dystonia, a neurological condition marked by involuntary movements and extended muscular contractions.1 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) refers to the tonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle and associated musculature of the upper face, including the corrugator and procerus muscles.1 In its earliest stages, patients with BEB…

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MEIBOMIAN GLAND DYSFUNCTION

Signs and Symptoms Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) represents a chronic disorder of the lids, lid margins and preocular tear film. As a rule, the condition is bilateral, although there may be asymmetry in terms of severity. Patients with MGD may report a wide range of symptoms that are characteristically coincident with those of dry eye…

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ECCHYMOSIS AND BLUNT ORBITAL TRAUMA

Signs and Symptoms The word ecchymosis takes its origin from the Greek words ek (to extravasate blood from) and chymos (juice) to mean “a spilling out of blood from the juice.”1 Patients with eyelid and periorbital injuries will present with varying degrees of eyelid swelling, eyelid edema, bruising and bleeding.2,3 Eyelid hematomas and periorbital tissue…

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OCULAR DEMODICOSIS

Signs and Symptoms Demodicosis refers to an infestation by mites of the genus Demodex. In humans, these mites selectively inhabit the skin of the face and head and have been associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis, among other conditions.1-4 When Demodex infest the eyelids and lashes, the condition is referred to as ocular…

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EYELID LACERATION

Signs and Symptoms Patients with eyelid lacerations will present with varying degrees of eyelid swelling, edema, ecchymosis and bleeding.1 Eyelid lacerations can result from blunt force, cutting injury, extreme irritation secondary to dryness, constant epiphora (from surface or allergic disease) or from blepharitis infection resulting in a fissure at the juncture of the lateral eyelid…

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PHTHISIS BULBI

Signs and Symptoms Phthisis bulbi is an ocular condition defined by atrophy and disorganization of the intraocular structures that leads to a soft and anatomically disfigured, shrunken globe.1-3 The term is derived from the Greek word phthiein, meaning shrinkage or consuming.3 Ocular atrophy and phthisis bulbi connote consecutive stages in the degeneration process of a…

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EYELID MYOKYMIA

Signs and Symptoms The word myokymia is derived from the Greek words myo, meaning muscle, and kyma, meaning wave. It is defined by complex, involuntary, repetitive electrical discharges involving any muscle within the body.1 With respect to the eye, it is known to primarily affect two structures: the eyelid and the superior oblique muscle.1-3 Patients…

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DACRYOADENITIS

Signs and Symptoms Patients with dacryoadenitis may be highly symptomatic or only mildly distracted by their cosmetic appearance, depending upon the underlying etiology and clinical course. By definition, dacryoadenitis represents an inflammatory enlargement of the lacrimal gland, either due to infection or infiltration in response to the presence of systemic disease.1,2 In acute cases, patients…

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SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Signs and Symptoms Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eyelid (after basal cell carcinoma), accounting for 5% to 10% of all eyelid neoplasms in the United States.1-3 SCC is most often encountered in fair-skinned individuals over 60 years of age, particularly those who have a history of chronic…

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PROPTOSIS (EXOPHTHALMOS)

Signs and Symptoms Proptosis is a non-ocular term generically meaning “to push forward.” Ocularly, it is the forward projection or displacement of the eyeball.1 Exophthalmos is a term specific to the eye, connoting an abnormally protruding globe.2 The ophthalmic community uses the words interchangeably. Normal exophthalmometry measurements increase with age:4 Age Normal Exophthalmometry ≤4 13.2mm…

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