Uvea and Glaucoma

POSTERIOR UVEITIS

Signs and Symptoms Posterior uveitis is an encompassing term indicating inflammation of the posterior segment. The inflammation may be posterior, intermediate or pan-ocular. As the causes of posterior uveitis are numerous, so are the signs and symptoms. Patients with posterior uveitis typically complain of vision reduction, floaters and possibly visual field loss. Pain, photophobia and…

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METASTATIC CHOROIDAL TUMORS

Signs and Symptoms Metastatic tumors of the choroid may present with an assortment of signs and symptoms. Commonly, patients complain of visual symptoms such as blurred vision, scotoma or metamorphopsia.1 Patients may also report photopsia, floaters, visual field defects, red eye and even pain in some cases.1,2 Less commonly, patients may be entirely asymptomatic.1 Ophthalmoscopically,…

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ANTERIOR UVEITIS

Signs and Symptoms Uveitis may be noted in individuals of any age, but is most commonly encountered in those between 20 and 60 years of age.1,2 Anterior uveitis does not tend to favor either gender, nor is there any particular racial predilection.2,3 Patients with anterior uveitis typically present with complaints of pain, photophobia and hyperlacrimation.…

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PIGMENT DISPERSION SYNDROME AND PIGMENTARY GLAUCOMA

Signs and Symptoms Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an asymptomatic disorder typically discovered upon routine evaluation.1 Pigmentary glaucoma (PG), a sequela of pigment dispersion syndrome, is also asymptomatic. Patients rarely present with complaints related to episodic rises in intraocular pressure secondary to exercise, such as colored haloes around lights, blurred vision or subtle ocular pain.2,3…

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EXFOLIATIVE GLAUCOMA

Signs and Symptoms Exfoliation syndrome and exfoliative glaucoma occur in high rates throughout northern Finland, Iceland, Saudi Arabia, Great Britain and Greece. The condition has a predilection for northern climates.1-4 Exfoliation occurs in 5% of older Americans.5 This condition is considered uncommon in patients of African descent, though it does occur.6,7 The true overall prevalence…

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PEDIATRIC AND CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA

Signs and Symptoms Pediatric glaucoma is a term that includes any form of glaucoma that presents between birth and age 18 years.1,2 Pediatric glaucomas can be either primary or secondary and the angle may be open or closed. However, there is confusing and overlapping terminology. Primary congenital and primary infantile glaucoma occur secondary to trabeculodysgenesis,…

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GLAUCOMATOCYCLITIC CRISIS

Signs and Symptoms The initial precipitating event in glaucomatocyclitic crisis (GCC) is the acute onset of a mild, self-limiting uveitis followed by a disproportionately large intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Glaucomatocyclitic crisis typically occurs between ages 20 and 50.1-3 It is considered uncommon after age 60 and before age 20, though there have been instances of…

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FUCHS’ HETEROCHROMIC IRIDOCYCLITIS

Signs and Symptoms Patients with Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis present as young adults with variable vision loss, anterior chamber reaction and iris heterochromia.1-3 There appears to be no racial or gender predilection. Initial vision loss is caused by cataract and vitreous opacities. Progressive vision loss can be due to secondary open- or closed-angle glaucoma. Symptoms typical…

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MALIGNANT GLAUCOMA

Signs and Symptoms Malignant glaucoma, also referred to as aqueous misdirection syndrome or ciliary block glaucoma, occurs without racial or gender predilection.1-6 Patients typically have hyperopic and small (nanophthalmic) eyes. Most significantly, there is a history of antecedent ocular surgery (typically, glaucoma surgery) with complications beginning shortly after. Malignant glaucoma occurs most commonly after trabeculectomy,…

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ENDOPHTHALMITIS

Signs and Symptoms Due to its numerous potential routes of inoculation, endophthalmitis has no typical age, gender or racial predilection. Patients often manifest pain and significant vision loss upon presentation; visual deterioration may be rapid from the onset of the condition. There is also rapidly progressing diffuse bulbar hyperemia and chemosis of the affected eye.…

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