Conjunctiva and Sclera

SCLERAL MELT

Signs and Symptoms Scleral melt—also known as scleral ischemia or scleral necrosis—is an uncommon condition that typically presents in older adults. In most cases, scleral melt represents a late complication of ophthalmic surgery and in such instances is more appropriately referred to as surgically induced scleral necrosis (SINS).1 It may also occur as a sequela…

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CONJUNCTIVAL LYMPHOMA

Signs and Symptoms While basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma are the most common malignancies of the periocular skin, lymphoma represents the most common malignant neoplasm of the ocular adnexa, and the conjunctiva is the site of involvement in about 35% to 40% of cases.1 This condition can be seen as an…

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CHLAMYDIAL and GONOCOCCAL CONJUNCTIVITIS

Signs and Symptoms Chlamydial infection is recognized as the world’s most common sexually transmitted disease.1-8 The spectrum of ocular sequelae includes trachoma, adult inclusion conjunctivitis and neonatal conjunctivitis.1-10 Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually.1-6 The disease is transmitted by…

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ACUTE BACTERIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS

Signs and Symptoms Patients with acute bacterial conjunctivitis present with injection of the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral vessels. In some cases, the palpebral conjunctiva is also affected. Infection typically begins in one eye and subsequently spreads to the other eye within 24 to 48 hours.1 There may be mild photophobia and discomfort, but pain is…

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PINGUECULA and PINGUECULITIS

Signs and Symptoms Pingueculae are characterized by yellowish, slightly raised, interpalpebral exacerbations of tissue in the nasal and temporal bulbar conjunctiva.1-14 In most cases, pingueculae are an ancillary finding, causing little, if any, ocular symptoms. Research has linked the severity of pingueculae with exposure to ultraviolet light (chronic sunlight exposure, welding), contact lens wear (more…

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ATOPIC KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

Signs and Symptoms Atopy is a genetic predisposition to develop an allergic reaction.1 Systemic examples include allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The ocular correlate is atopic conjunctivitis. Patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) invariably have a personal or family history of allergic disease.2 This may include atopic dermatitis, asthma, hayfever, food allergies and/or urticaria.2-4 Patients are…

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VIRAL CONJUNCTIVITIS

Signs and Symptoms The two frequently encountered forms of viral conjunctivitis are pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF) and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC).1–11 Pharyngoconjunctival fever is characterized by a fever, sore throat, history of recent upper respiratory infection (URI) and follicular conjunctivitis.1,2,4,7,9-11 The condition may be unilateral or bilateral, but classically presents in one eye and is spread to…

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OCULAR MELANOSIS

Signs and Symptoms Ocular melanosis represents a pigmented discoloration of the superficial ocular tissues. Patients are not symptomatic with regard to discomfort or visual disturbance, but often present with cosmetic concerns, particularly when the condition is newly acquired. In some cases, patients will report that their eyes are chronically red, mistakenly interpreting the ocular pigmentation…

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PTERYGIUM

Signs and Symptoms Pterygium (plural: pterygia) is typically discovered upon routine ocular evaluation in asymptomatic individuals, or in patients who present with a cosmetic concern about a tissue “growing over the eye.” In some instances, the vascularized pterygium may become red and inflamed, motivating the patient to seek immediate care. In others, the irregular ocular…

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ACUTE ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

Signs and Symptoms Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common manifestation of ocular allergy, affecting between 20% and 40% of the US population.1-11 Acute allergic conjunctivitis describes the abrupt and immediate response seen in sensitized individuals after exposure to a particular allergen or sensitizing agent. Two main forms are recognized: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), which coincides…

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